Universität Bonn

Abteilung für Islamwissenschaft und Nahostsprachen

Publikationen

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© Bonner Islamstudien

Bonner Islamstudien (BIS)

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann

Die "Bonner Islamstudien" (BIS) ist die 2003 neu begründete Nachfolgereihe der früheren "Bonner Orientalistischen Studien". In dieser Schriftenreihe der Bonner Islamwissenschaft erscheinen exzellente Qualifikationsschriften ebenso wie größere Abhandlungen und Monographien renommierter OrientalistInnen. Darüber hinaus soll mit den BIS auch ein Forum für neue Fragestellungen, Themenfelder und Methoden innerhalb der Orientalistik entstehen. Besondere Schwerpunkte möchten dabei die Ansätze der Alltagsgeschichte, Historischen Anthropologie, Mikro-Historie, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung und Kulturgeschichte sein.

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Band 1: Mohammed Nekroumi: Interrogation, polarité et argumentation vers une théorie structurale et énonciative de la modalité en Arabe classique2

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Band 6: Caspar Hillebrand: Evliyaʼ Celebi auf der Krim. Ein Reisebericht aus den Jahren 1665 und 1666 [in Vorbereitung]
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Band 7: Mohammed Nekroumi, Jan Meise (Hg.): Modern Controversies in Qurʼānic Studies7
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Band 8: Stephan Conermann: Die Šibāniden. Forschungsstand und Aufgaben für die Zukunft [in Vorbereitung]
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Band 11: Stephan Conermann, Marie-Christine Heinze (Hg.): Bonner Islamwissenschaftler stellen sich vor10
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Band 13: Nejat Göyünç: Ǧāmeʿoʾl-Ḥesāb des ʿEmad as-Sarāwī. Ein Leitfaden des staatlichen Rechnungswesens von ca. 134012
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Band 24: Al-Kawkab al-mušriq fīmā yaḥtāǧ ilayhi al-muwaṯṯiq li-ʿālim aš-šurūṭ. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥasanī al-Ǧarawānī aš-Šāfiʿī. Herausgegeben und kommentiert von Souad Saghbini23
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Bd. 30: Hedda Reindl-Kiel, Seyfi Kenan (Hg.): Deutsch-türkische Begegnungen - Alman Türk Tesadüfleri29
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Band 35: Michaela Hoffmann-Ruf (Hg.): Johann G. Gildemeister, 4 Bde.34
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Band 36: Albrecht Fuess, Stefan Weninger (Eds.), A life with the Prophet?35
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Band 38: Carsten Polanz: Band 38: Das ganze Leben als Ǧihād37
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Band 39: Eva Orthmann/Petra G. Schmidt (Eds.): Science in the City of Fortune38
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Band 40: Adrian Klein: Mit Schwert und Feder39
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© Bonner Islamwissenschaftliche Hefte

Bonner Islamwissenschaftliche Hefte (BiH)

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann

Die Reihe "Bonner islamwissenschaftliche Hefte" versteht sich als die kleine Schwester der bereits etablierten "Bonner Islamstudien". Sie soll der Ort sein, an dem nicht nur arrivierte ForscherInnen kleinere Studien und Abhandlungen veröffentlichen können, sondern an dem auch sehr gute Bachelor-, Master und Magisterarbeiten oder thematisch zusammenhängende Aufsätze dem Fachpublikum zur Verfügung und zur Diskussion gestellt werden sollen.

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Heft 30: Redoine Baghdadi: Das Spanienbild in den Augen eines Marokkanischen Diplomaten im 18. Jahrhundert
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© Islamicate Intellectual History

Islamicate Intellectual History (IIH)

Herausgegeben von Judith Pfeiffer, Shahzad Bashir und Heidrun Eichner

Die Reihe "Islamicate Intellectual History - Studies and Texts in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Periods" umfasst Monographien, Sammelbände, kritische Ausgaben und kommentierte Übersetzungen von Texten aus dem 13. bis 18. Jahrhundert mit einem besonderen Schwerpunkt auf der islamischen Geistesgeschichte, einschließlich der Philosophie, der Theologie, des Sufismus, des gesamten Spektrums der sogenannten okkulten Wissenschaften, der Medizin, des politischen Denkens, der Rechtstheorie und angrenzender Bereiche. Ziel der Reihe ist es, einen eigenen Ort für die Publikation von Werken, die diese Bereiche berühren, anzubieten und das Studium der Geistesgeschichte der genannten Periode in ihrem sozialen und politischen Kontext zu fördern. Alle Publikationen sind im peer-review-Verfahren begutachtet.

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© Mamluk Studies

Mamluk Studies

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann und Bethany J. Walker

"Mamluk Studies" ist die erste Reihe, die sich ausschließlich der Geschichte, Kultur und Gesellschaft der Mamlukenzeit (1250-1517) widmet. Sie umfasst Quelleneditionen, Monographien, Sammel- und Tagungsbände in englischer, französischer und deutscher Sprache. Das Mamlukenreich ist ein historisch einzigartiges Gesellschaftsmodell.

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© Narratio Aliena?

Narratio Aliena? Studien des Bonner Zentrums für Transkulturelle Narratologie

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann, Marion Gymnich und Anna Kollatz

Der Fokus dieser Reihe liegt auf der Herausarbeitung und Analyse narrativer Strukturen in nicht-abendländischen, in der Regel 'vormodernen' Texten. Ein Text stellt dabei erst einmal eine sprachliche Einheit dar, die durch verschiedene Eigenschaften der Textualität charakterisiert wird. Dadurch wird eine Texttiefenstruktur erkennbar, die auf eine kommunikative Situation, eine thematische Entfaltung und eine Kommunikationsabsicht schließen lässt. Die von uns in den Vordergrund der Betrachtung gerückten nicht-abendländischen Texte werden nicht auf ihre Faktizität, ihre philologischen Feinheiten oder ihre ereignisgeschichtlichen Aussagen hin untersucht, sondern es wird den Fragen nachgegangen, wie die Erzähltechniken der Quellen aussehen und was wir aus den Texten mittels der narrativen Strukturen über die "mentalen (emotionalen und kognitiven, unbewußten und bewußten) Operationen, durch die die Erfahrung von Zeit im Medium der Erinnerung zu Orientierungen der Lebenspraxis verarbeitet wird", erfahren können. Die Spannbreite des von uns untersuchten Materials reicht von chinesischen, japanischen, mongolischen, ägyptischen und tibetischen bis zu sanskritischen, aramäischen, hebräischen, arabischen, persischen, hethitischen und oralen Texten. Die Reihe spiegelt den interdisziplinären Ansatz des Bonner Zentrums für Trankulturelle Narratologie (BZTN) wider, zu dem sich 2009 FachvertreterInnen aus der Altamerikanistik, Anglistik, Ägyptologie, Indologie, Islamwissenschaft, Japanologie, Mongolistik, Religionswissenschaft, Sinologie und Tibetologie zusammengeschlossen haben.

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Eine Wissenschaftlerin und ein Wissenschaftler arbeiten hinter einer Glasfassade und mischen Chemikalien mit Großgeräten.
© Otto Spies Memorial Lecture Series

Otto Spies Memorial Lecture Series (OSML)

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann und Gül Şen

Die "Otto Spies Memorial Lecture Series" (OSML) wurde im Jahr 2015 zu Ehren des Andenkens an Prof. Dr. Otto Spies (1901-1981), dem ehemaligen Direktor des Orientalischen Seminars der Universität Bonn, ins Leben gerufen. Die Reihe soll ein Forum für kürzere Beiträge von etablierten WissenschaftlerInnenn der Osmanistik bieten, die alle Aspekte der osmanischen Geschichte, Literatur, Sprache und Kunstgeschichte umfassen. Die Beiträge sollen neue Erkenntnisse der Forschung diskutieren und innovative Interpretationen von Primärquellen liefern.

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104Reindl-Kiel’s study offers glimpses into Ottoman courtly life and its music scene in the second quarter of the 17th century. Several archival registers and the relevant chronicles form the basis of her paper on Tüccarzade Silahdar Mustafa Pasha, the favourite and intimate friend of Murad IV in his final five years. Two of the treasury inventories under study record not only objects purchased or received as gifts but also cash coming in and the details of how this money was spent. It is a peculiarity that allows us to trace aspects of the pasha’s everyday life. Viewed from the perspective of the records, these years – interrupted by the Baghdad campaign – seem to have been an endless garland of leisure, pleasure, parties, music and joy; only a closer look reveals the pasha’s duties. Through these sources we can follow not only the pastimes of Silahdar Mustafa but, to a certain extent, those of the sultan himself.
 Hedda Reindl-Kiel studied at the universities of Munich and Istanbul. In 1979 she obtained her PhD from Munich University. For 28 years she taught Turkish in combination with Translation Studies at the University of Bonn, from where she retired in 2012. Her publications cover a wide range of articles on Ottoman political and social history as well as on cultural aspects. Her research interests in recent years have focused on material culture and, most prolifically, the system of gift giving in the Ottoman Empire from the 16th until the end of the 18th century. She has authored numerous articles on the latter topic. Currently she is preparing a monograph on the Ottoman system of gift exchange.
105In 1766, Thomas von Chabert was born in Pera into a family of dragomans and diplomats of French origin, who had settled in Constantinople a century before. As a young boy, Chabert was sent to Vienna to study at the K.K. Akademie Orientalischer Sprachen, where he subsequently became a professor and continued teaching until 1817. He authored a number of works, the earliest of which being Kurze Anleitung zur Erlernung der türkischen Sprache für Militär Personen, Vienna 1789. It was a practical guide for soldiers serving in the Austro-Russian war against the Ottoman Empire (1787–1791/1792). The grammar is based on Kollár’s 1756 re-edition of Meninski’s grammar of 1680. Chabert adapted it by omitting the Arabic and Persian elements and the Arabic script. He partly included texts from the Meninski-Kollár reading section and added his own phrasebook. Besides giving an overview of Chabert’s activities within Viennese Oriental Studies of the period, this present publication analyses his Anleitung and compares it to Kollár’s re-edition of Meninski’s grammar.Claudia Römer is Associate Professor at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the University of Vienna, where she got her PhD in 1980 in Turkish Studies (major) and Arabic Studies (minor). Her PhD thesis on the influence of translations from Persian on the development of the Ottoman language was supervised by Andreas Tietze. Her main fields of research are Ottoman documents, in the edition of which she has been involved since 1979, first in a series of projects run by Anton C. Schaendlinger, Ottoman Social and Economic History, and Ottoman linguistics, especially stylistics of prose texts of the Middle Ottoman period. She is General Secretary of the Comité international d’études pré-ottomanes et ottomanes (CIÉPO), and member of the Executive Committee and Executive Board (treasurer) of the International Association of Ottoman Social and Economic History (IAOSEH), member of the Wiener Archäographisches Forum (WAF) and the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. 
After decades of relative neglect, Ottoman slavery in recent years has become a favoured topic among historians. New sources especially on the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have become available, due to the progressive cataloguing of the Ottoman archives, especially the newly instituted secular Nizamiye courts providing evidence of the difficult road toward the abolition of slavery. As in the later centuries of the empire’s existence, Ottoman slaves were so often female the topic has also interested historians of Ottoman women. Given the ‘literary turn’ in historiography worldwide and the critical questioning of—mostly but not exclusively—European primary sources, the reports of liberated former slaves have also attracted historians. Rather than studying slavery per se, this group of scholars investigates perceptions of ‘the other’ and the ways in which ex-slaves who had managed to return to their home countries negotiated patrons and publishers in their attempts to get their stories into print.
The result is a bibliography, dating largely from recent years, with divergent directions and discourses. Perhaps the time has come to pull together the different threads and survey the results, emphasizing at every turn how provisional they really are. On this occasion, we will take the opportunity of identifying questions and sources, which, at least in the opinion of the present author, have not received the attention they deserve.Educated at the universities of Hamburg, Istanbul and Bloomington/Indiana, Suraiya Faroqhi taught English (1971–1972) and history at Middle East Technical University, Ankara (1972–1987) and served as a professor of Ottoman Studies at the Ludwig Maximilians Universität in Munich (1988–2007).
After retirement from LMU, she has worked for about ten years as a professor at the Department of History, Istanbul Bilgi University. She holds an honorary doctorate from Boğaziçi University in Istanbul, and is an honorary member of the Middle East Studies Association, the Bilim Akademisi and the Türk Tarih Kurumu.
Most recently, she has been the Shaheed Bhagat Singh Visiting Professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University/New Delhi and a fellow at JNUʼs Institute of Advanced Studies. In her publications, she has focused on people who often get short shrift in Ottoman historiography, including artisans, other people making a living from their work, and women.

 
107After the Ottoman conquest of Syria in 1516, the Janissaries of Damascus were employed to meet the manpower needs of further campaigns in Iran, Cyprus, and particularly Yemen. The recruitment of the necessary troops beyond the devşirme dramatically changed the character of the Janissary corps and eventually the empire as a whole. It transformed the Janissaries from an elite military unit of slave soldiers into an assemblage of men from diverse origins, slave and free, who performed a variety of functions for the empire in addition to waging war. This transformation affected the role of the Janissaries in Ottoman politics as well as their own concept of themselves and their role, generating shifts among social groups and changes in the way Ottomans regarded their empire. This study examines the change in military recruitment in Syria through the documents of the Ottoman government, showing how the actual beginning of this transformation differed from its description by contemporary writers of nasihatnameler.Linda T. Darling is Professor of History at the University of Arizona, where she has taught since 1989. After two advisors with whom she had hoped to study Syrian history left the University of Chicago, she pursued a PhD in Ottoman History with the doyen of the field, Professor Halil İnalcık. It was the best decision she ever made. She has authored two books, Revenue-Raising and Legitimacy: Tax Collection and Finance Administration in the Ottoman Empire, 1560–1660 (1996) and A History of Social Justice and Political Power in the Middle East: The Circle of Justice from Mesopotamia to Globalization (2013). In the present publication she returns to her initial interest in Syria. Meanwhile, she has served as President of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association, General Secretary of the International Association for Ottoman Social and Economic History, Secretary of the American Research Institute in Turkey, and Organizing Committee Member for the Arizona Center for Turkish Studies.

Eine Wissenschaftlerin und ein Wissenschaftler arbeiten hinter einer Glasfassade und mischen Chemikalien mit Großgeräten.
© Ottoman Studies/Osmanistische Studien

Ottoman Studies/Osmanistische Studien

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann, Sevgi Ağcagül und Gül Şen

Die "Ottoman Studies" bzw. "Osmanistischen Studien" sind die erste wissenschaftliche Reihe im deutschsprachigen Raum, in der die Ergebnisse der osmanistischen Forschung zusammengeführt werden.

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Band 002 - The Mamluk-Ottoman Transition Continuity and Change in Egypt and Bilād al-Shām in the Sixteenth Century.108 Stephan Conermann (Hg.), Gül Şen (Hg.) The essays discuss continuity and change in Bilād al Shām (Greater Syria) during the sixteenth century, examining to what extent Egypt and Greater Syria were affected by the transition from Mamluk to Ottoman rule. This is explored in a variety of areas: diplomatic relations, histories and historiography, fiscal and agricultural administration, symbolic orders, urban developments, local perspectives and material culture. In order to rethink the sixteenth century from a transitional perspective and thus overcome the conventional dynasty-centered fields of research Mamlukists and Ottomanists have been brought together, shedding light on the remarkable sixteenth century, so decisive for the formation of early modern Muslim empires.



Band 003 - Imagologie der Fremde: Das Londonbild eines osmanischen Reisenden Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts.109
Veruschka Wagner  
 
Welche Bilder und Wahrnehmungen über die Engländer übermittelt ein Osmane in seiner Reisebeschreibung seiner Leserschaft? Und welche Rückschlüsse lässt er dabei auf seine eigene Kultur zu? Der anonyme Reisende besuchte 1851 England und hielt in dem »Seyāḥatnāme-i Londra« (London-Reisebericht) seine Beobachtungen und Eindrücke fest. Damit hinterließ er einen wertvollen Schatz an Informationen, den die Autorin analysiert und daraus neue Erkenntnisse über die Fremd- und Eigenwahrnehmung im Osmanischen Reich gewinnt. Die Autorin untersucht sowohl auf sprachlicher als auch auf inhaltlicher Ebene, wie der Verfasser die Engländer, ihr Land sowie die Stellung des osmanischen Reiches wahrnahm und bewertete.


Band 004 - Die osmanisch-türkische Frauenbewegung im Kontext internationaler Frauenorganisationen. Eine Beziehungs- und Verflechtungsgeschichte von 1895 bis 1935.110
Elife Biçer-Deveci  
 
Elife Biçer-Deveci interpretiert die Beziehungsgeschichte der internationalen Frauenbewegung in ihrer frühen Phase neu und rückt die Perspektive der osmanisch-türkischen Feministinnen in den Vordergrund. Sie beleuchtet damit Ambivalenzen und kulturelle Verständigungsprobleme in dieser Beziehungsgeschichte. Ferner unterzieht die Autorin das Narrativ des feministischen Orientalismus in der Forschung einer kritischen Revision. Sie berücksichtigt die Rolle des Nationalstaates Türkei in der Etablierung von Beziehungen zwischen den Feministinnen. Somit vertieft dieser Band unser Verständnis von komplexen Vorgängen der interkulturellen Verständigung und der Geschlechterordnung als Strukturprinzipien globaler Moderne.


Band 005 - An Iridescent Device: Premodern Ottoman Poetry.111
Christiane Czygan (Hg.),   Stephan Conermann (Hg.)  
 
Ten experts in premodern literature and history examine the style, genre, and performance of sixteenth century Ottoman poetry. A large number of poems, including a newly discovered imperial poem collection and the work of a poet fallen into oblivion, are discussed with regard to their multifarious functions and their contemporary lyrical appeal. Though most of these poets worked in conventional settings many of the articles in this volume point out how they broke taboos, glossed over violence, and promoted or questioned political rule, even as they appealed to their listeners on an emotional level. The authors provide ample evidence for the importance attributed to certain cities and places, as well as local affiliations and networks. These analyses show how premodern poetry operated as a tool of communication and formed an integral part of premodern social and political life.


Band 006 - Lobgedichte und andere Gedichte des osmanischen Dichters Keşfī (m. 1538–9). Versuch der Bestimmung eines unpopulären Stils. 112
Hülya Çelik  
 
Hulya Celik untersucht das Leben und einen Teil des Werkes des osmanischen Dichters Kesfi (gest. 1538–9) mithilfe von Informationen aus Dichterbiographien, den Werken des Dichters selbst, Archivdokumenten und anderen Primarquellen des 16. Jahrhunderts. Ein wichtiger Teil ihrer Arbeit widmet sich der Dichtung Kesfis und bearbeitet insgesamt 105 Gedichte. Dabei handelt es sich zum Großteil um Lobgedichte (Qasiden), aber auch um Strophengedichte und Chronogramme, die sich in der einzigen bisher bekannten Handschrift der Gedichtsammlung Kesfis befinden. Dieser Band beinhaltet eine Edition der Gedichte und geht tiefgehend auf deren technische Eigenschaften, Sprache und Stil ein. Hinsichtlich des Stils der Gedichte untersucht die Autorin die rhetorischen Elemente und veranschaulicht diese mit Gedichtpassagen.


Band 007 - Slaves and Slave Agency in the Ottoman Empire113Stephan Conermann (Hg.), Gül Şen (Hg.)



Band 008 - Kitāb-ı Hedāyā. Studien zum Osmanischen Reich und seinen Nachbargebieten114Sevgi Ağcagül (Hg.), Henning Sievert (Hg.)Dieser Band versammelt eine Reihe von Beiträgen aus der Forschung zum Raum zwischen Mitteleuropa und dem Iran von vorosmanischer Zeit bis ins 20. Jahrhundert. Die Autorinnen und Autoren betrachten ein breites Spektrum an Themen. Dazu gehören beispielsweise: Alltag und materielle Kultur, Populärkultur, Mensch und Tier, Herrscher und Spione, Gesundheit und Krankheit, Zivilisierung und Dschihad, Wissenswelten und Schriftkultur. Mit ihren Arbeiten ehren die Autorinnen und Autoren die Bonner Wissenschaftlerin Hedda Reindl-Kiel.



Band 009 - Kitāb Dustūr al-gharāʾib wa-maʿdan al-raghāʾib and Related Texts. The Correspondence (Inshāʾ) of Muḥammad ibn Abī al-Ḥasan al-Bakrī al-Ṣiddīqī (930–994/1524–1586)115Mustafa Mughazy (Hg.), Adam Sabra (Hg.)This is the first publication of the official correspondence of the leading religious scholar and literary figure, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abi al-Hasan al-Bakri al-Siddiqi al-Shafi‘i Sibt Al al-Hasan. It provides a window into the world of an influential religious scholar in sixteenth century Cairo and his network of contacts in the Ottoman Empire and beyond. Muhammad al-Bakri corresponded with Sultan Murad III, the grand vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, and with various officials in Mecca, including the sharifian ruler of Mecca, al-Hasan ibn Abi Numayy. The collection also contains two letters addressed to Sa‘di rulers of Morocco and one to the Mughal Emperor Akbar, as well as letters to a variety of lesser Ottoman officials. It is an important source for the history of Ottoman Egypt and the Hijaz.

Eine Wissenschaftlerin und ein Wissenschaftler arbeiten hinter einer Glasfassade und mischen Chemikalien mit Großgeräten.
© Ulrich Haarmann Memorial Lecture Series

Ulrich Haarmann Memorial Lecture Series (UHML)

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann

Die "Ulrich Haarman Memorial Lecture Series" (UHML) wurde zu Ehren des Andenkens an Prof. Dr. Ulrich Haarmann (1942-1999) ins Leben gerufen. Die Reihe bietet etablierten WissenschaftlerInnen der Mamluk Studies die Gelegenheit, auch kürzere Beiträge zu allen Aspekten der mamlukischen Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Literatur und Kunstgeschichte einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zur Verfügung zu stellen.

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For almost two centuries, relations between the Rasulids of Yemen (1229–1454) and the Mamluks were characterized by a strong competition over political and economic supremacy in the Red Sea region. This rivalry was most forcefully apparent in Mecca which became the focus of political and religious contest following the destruction of the Abbasid caliphate in Bagdad in 1258. The Rasulid sultans used important emblems of political power, such as the sponsoring of architectural projects in Mecca, the sending of the kiswah and the maḥmal, the striking of coins, and the distribution of gifts, all of which contributed towards reinforcing their regional and local legitimacy.

The Author
Historian of Islamic art and architecture, Noha Sadek earned her Ph.D. degree in Middle East and Islamic Studies from the University of Toronto with a thesis on Rasulid architectural patronage. Her on-going research focuses on the art and architecture of Yemen on which she has published in English and French. She is currently a research associate at the CEFAS (Centre Français d’Archéologie et de Sciences Sociales).


 
Although David Ayalon (1914–98) is primarily known as a Mamlukist and many will consider him the father of Mamluk studies, he also turned his attention to other weighty matters in the study of Middle Eastern and Islamic history. Among these were the important relations between the Muslim dominated Middle East and the Eurasian Steppe, the original home of the nomadic Turks and Mongols. A related subject that Ayalon explored was the relations of the mostly Turkish Mamluks of Egypt and Syria with the Mongols. In the early 1970s he examined if Mongol law (Yasa) had been implemented in the Mamluk Sultanate, as claimed by some scholars. Ayalon’s conclusion was a resounding negative answer, but along the way, he opened up new vistas of source criticism, together with innovative ideas on both Mongol and Mamluk history.

The Author
Reuven Amitai is Eliyahu Elath Professor for Muslim History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, specializing in history of the late medieval Middle East and adjacent areas. From 2010 to 2014, he was dean of the Faculty of Humanities at the Hebrew University, and from 2014 to 2016, he was a senior fellow at the “Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg: History and Society during the Mamluk Era (1250–1517)” in Bonn. He has recently co-edited (with Christoph Cluse), Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, 11th to 15th Centuries, published in late 2017 by Brepols. His current research focuses on Palestine during the later Middle Ages.


 
8787This book comprises the edition and analysis of a waqf-scroll documenting the charitable foundations of a Damascene physician, Ibn Ḥubayqa, established in the last years of the Mamluk reign. The document is regularly updated and corroborated by courts and judges of all madhhabs throughout the first century of Ottoman rule in the city. Two principal reasons make this document, which is now held at the American Unversity of Beirut, stand out: First, the general scarcity of pre-Ottoman archival material from Damascus, notably the near-complete absence of original waqf-deeds from the city. This is, of course, in stark contrast to the many surviving endowment documents from Mamluk Egypt, a fact that means a severe geographical imbalance in our knowledge of this important institution’s history. Second, the profession of the endower and his descendants as prominent physicians makes this a welcome addition to our knowledge of a group that left otherwise very few traces in the literary sources. This scroll allows us to investigate how this physicians’ family participated in the spread in personal ownership of rural agricultural lands in the Damascene hinterland in the late Mamluk and early Ottoman period. Finally, the edition and analysis of this rare document will help us better understand the process of transition from the Mamluk to the Ottoman law-court system.

The Author
Boris Liebrenz studied Arabic philology and History at Leipzig University. In his dissertation (awarded the Annemarie-Schimmel-Forschungspreis in 2018), Liebrenz analysed the history of a Damascene private library and the broader book culture of the city during the Ottoman period (Die Rifāʽīya. Leiden: Brill, 2016). After research positions in Bonn, Berlin, and New York City, he is currently a research fellow at the Saxon Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Leipzig within the framework of the project Bibliotheca Arabica. He is also a co-editor of the Journal of Islamic Manuscripts. Besides a sustained interest in the history of manuscripts, libraries, and reading, Liebrenz’ main publications revolve around the history of Oriental studies, printing, themes of social and economic history, and minorities in the pre-modern Middle East, all with a particular focus on documentary sources from the earliest Arabic papyri to Ottoman merchant letters.


This paper is an attempt to clarify the development, function, and conceptualization of shared‐revenue arrangements between Franks and Muslims in the Coastal Plain (al-Sāḥil) and Greater Syria (Bilād al-Shām) in the medieval period. I first catalogue truces that established partitions while assessing their defining characteristics. I then analyze how Frankish and Muslim conceptualizations of property and territory may have informed two slightly different notions of partitioning. Based on an analysis of these conceptualizations of ownership and territory, I argue that the only basis for partition truces in the Frankish‐Muslim context was a division of revenue that resembled tributary status.
The Author
Bogdan is a PhD candidate at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, where he is writing his thesis under the supervision of Prof. Mark Meyerson, Prof. Linda Northrup, and Prof. Michael Gervers. In his dissertation, he is investigating the linkage between diplomatic relations and minority conditions in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Bogdan finished his undergraduate studies at McGill University in 2011 and his MPhil at St. Catharine’s College, University of Cambridge, in 2012.


 
Gül Şen’s study offers a reconsideration of the area covered by present-day Jordan under Ottoman rule during the sixteenth through the eighteenth century. Despite its political and strategic importance over the ages, the former Mamluk- and later Ottoman-ruled region has remained an understudied area eclipsed by other territories in the former Ottoman province of historical Syria (Bilād al-Shām). By applying a combination of approaches, putting an emphasis on ‘transition’ instead of dynastic division and considering the geographical reorientation as the ‘empire’s frontier’, the author reframes Jordan as a frontier during a transitional period and sets it into the larger picture of Ottoman provincial administration. Thus, she offers a fresh understanding of Ottoman rule beyond the conventional assessments. Further, she argues that in order to understand the multilayered experiences of the imperial administration in this frontier zone, various historical perceptions should be examined. Appealing to interdisciplinary approaches, the study is a contribution to the complex history of the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
 

 
 
There is a rich corpus of texts about agriculture during the Rasulid era (13th–15th centuries CE) in Yemen. One of the most important crops at the time was the date palm (nakhl), which was grown in the Tihāma coastal region, Najrān and Ḥaḍramawt. This essay provides a translation and analysis of the section on date palms in the 13th century agricultural treatise Milḥ al-malāḥa fī ma‘rifat al-filāḥa, written by the Rasulid sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf ‘Umar. Details are provided on the varieties of dates, their cultivation, pollination and protection from insects and diseases. 
 
The Author 
Daniel Martin Varisco is an anthropologist and historian with extensive experience in Yemen with a focus on the history of Yemeni agriculture and the history of the Rasulid period. He has taught at Hofstra University in New York and Qatar University and currently serves as President of the American Institute for Yemeni Studies.

 
 
The onslaught of the plague, possibly exacerbated by climate change, caused a crisis in 14th century Egyptian agriculture. Shifts in ownership from the state to private hands or pious foundations put further stress on the state’s traditional fiscal base. Christ argues that the sultans increased taxation and state intervention in response, and that control of the international transit trade turned out to be particularly profitable. In order to tap it more effectively, the Mamluk sultanate reinforced ties with the Venetians in the Mediterranean and the Rasulids in the Red Sea. Relations were grounded in an ambiguous language of gift exchange which allowed for the harmonization of nominal hierarchical difference and de facto bilateral, symbiotic exchange. On the basis of shared trade interests, the Mamluks delegated power over the ‘Two Seas’. This delegation was not perfect though; the Mamluks also sought to establish a direct if only seasonal fiscal presence in the Egyptian gateways of this trade in Alexandria, Upper Egypt and the Hijaz , thus combining power delegation on the seas with tighter control in the ports in order to channel the lucrative transit trade through their Cairo power base.
 
The Author
 
Georg Christ is a Senior Lecturer in Medieval and Early Modern History at the University of Manchester. Recent works include “Decline or Deindustrialization? Notes on the Entangled Histories of Levantine and European Industries in the Late Middle Ages”, Comparativ 26, 3 (2016): 25–44. He is currently at work on a book about maritime trade regimes in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 14th century, especially Veneto-Mamluk relations.
 

 
 
Based upon an analysis of the so-called Mahdi A manuscript of Alf Layla wa Layla—preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale—and the wider context of Mamluk numismatic history, Schultz explores what this version of the famous collection of stories can tell us about coinage in the Mamluk Sultanate. He first revisits the debate over the date of this manuscript’s transcription. While Muhsin Mahdi concluded that this manuscript was transcribed in eighth/fourteenth century, Heinz Grotzfeld argued that the manuscript was a ninth/fifteenth century product. Grotzfeld based his conclusion on the basis of the mention in the manuscript of gold coins known as “ashrafī ” dinars, and he identified these coins as those dinars struck in 829/1425 during the reign of sultan al-Ashraf Barsbāy. Schultz demonstrates how the numismatic evidence overwhelming supports the later date, while also allowing for a date of transcription slightly earlier than the mid-century date favored by Grotzfeld. The second part of the essay gives multiple examples of how the language of money and commercial transactions found in several stories help corroborate other interpretations of monetary circulation in medieval Egypt and Syria.
 
The Author
Warren C. Schultz (Ph.D., Islamic History, University of Chicago) is a professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern History at DePaul University in Chicago, IL, where he serves as an Associate Dean in the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences. He is also a Fellow of the American Numismatic Society. Schultz is the author of many articles and chapters on the monetary history of the medieval Islamic world in general, and the Mamluk Sultanate in particular. He has served as a numismatic consultant for several archaeological excavations, and is currently studying archaeologically-found coins from the Mamluk provinces of southern Bilād al-Shām. His interest in the Mamluks was sparked by a graduate course in 1986 taught by Carl Petry, a seminar which set in motion the creation of the Mamluk Bibliography Project and eventually the journal Mamluk Studies Review.
 

 
 
The battle of ʿAyn Jālūt was perceived as a dramatic historical event that responded to the deep crisis and despair that prevailed in the Muslim world in the wake of the Mongol invasion and the termination of the Abbasid caliphate, the symbolic religious leadership of the Muslim world. It was conferred the status of a paradigmatic historical event in Mamlūk historical literature far beyond the time it took place. As such it was used by the powerful groups of the Mamlūks and the ʿulamāʾ, the religious learned scholars as a vehicle to express their stance or claims in ongoing discourses on legitimacy, authority and power and voice their social and political interests. While the Mamlūks used their military achievements to legitimize their political position and base it on their divine chosen role to support Islam and defend the Muslims, the ʿulamāʾ reduced their importance by placing the Battle as a part of cyclic events that prove the divine protection of Islam. They used primordial Islamic images and figures, and past events to show that this victory was not only a military achievement but mainly the revival of the primal experience of Islam. For them it was a replication of the path of the Prophet Muḥammad, and they as dedicated religious leaders were its true heroes.
 
 
The Author
Amalia Levanoni, Prof. emeritus, President, the Middle East and Islamic Studies Association of Israel, Department of Middle Eastern History, Haifa University, Mount Carmel, Haifa. 1990 Ph.D. The Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Islamic History. 1993 Fellowship, Eberhard Karls University, Tubingen, Germany. 1997 Visiting Scholar, Wolfson College, University of Oxford, Oxford. 2001–2004 Associate Member, Center of Middle Eastern Studies, the University of Chicago. 2002 Visiting scholar, Center for Near Eastern Studies, the University of Chicago. 2004–2007 Chair, Department of Middle Eastern History, University of Haifa. 2005–2007 Member, Fulbright Foundation Committee, United States-Israel Educational Foundation. 2007 Visiting Scholar, Princeton University, Princeton. 2013 Fellowship, Annemarie-Schimmel-Kolleg for the History and Society of the Mamluk Era (1250–1517), Bonn University, Bonn.

 
 
Based on a reading of Ibn Taimiyya's Al-Ḥisba fī l-Islām, Jörn Thielmann argures for some structural similarities between Ibn Taimiyya's understanding of market economy and the ideas of some proponents of Germany's social market economy, like Walter Eucken, Alfred Müller-Armack or Ludwig Erhard, which made their way into the German constitution, the Grundgesetz. Besides more conventional presentations of the moral nature of ḥisba, Ibn Taimiyya develops a short concept of human society based on reflections on the human nature by Aristotle in his Politeia. Here, he shares the same assumption as hundred years later Ibn Khaldūn. He also shows very deep insights into the functioning of markets and thus fills the so-called Schumpeterian gap that assumes that between antiquity and Thomas Aquinas nothing important has been written on economics. Thielmann demonstrates that this treaty is an original contribution to economic thought. These reflections emerge out of the particular historical circumstances of Ibn Taimiyya's time: the Mongol threat and grain riost. Securing food supply in the big cities has been the main prerogative of the Mamluk rulers. To counter the Mongols, stability in society was needed.
 
This fresh look at controversial figure of the Islmaich history of thought provides proof of the complexity, richness and originality of his thinking beyond the usual stereotypes.
 
The Author
Jörn Thielmann (Ph.D., Islamic Studies, Ruhr-University Bochum) is since January 2009 Managing Director of the Erlanger Zentrum für Islam und Recht in Europa EZIRE at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nurnberg. From 2003 until 2008, he headed the Kompetenzzentrum Orient-Okzident Mainz (KooM). Having worked on legal pluralism and Islamic law in Egypt at the CEDEJ in Cairo and on the political economy in Algeria at the London School of Economics and Political Science, he is currently doing ethnographic fieldwork on Islamic fields in Germany. www.ezire.uni-erlangen.de
 

 
 
This essay explores the monumental intent of Cairo's Mamluk architecture by focusing on al-Darb al-Ahmar, a major thoroughfare along the route of royal processions that linked the citadel to the heart of the city. With a rather restrained number of architectural components, Mamluk patrons competed with each other in endowing monuments along the street that emphasized verticality, visibility, and domination of their urban surroundings. Al-Darb al-Ahmar was consequently transformed into a venue of exhibition where the Mamluks displayed their elaborate spatial, visual, and ceremonial grandeur and ultimately signs of their power. These Mamluk buildings attest to the outstanding monumental properties of Mamluk architecture and frame a street that, despite its deteriorating state, still exudes a bygone royal majesty.
 
The Author
Nasser Rabbat is the Aga Khan Professor and the Director of the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT. An architect and historian, his scholarly interests include Islamic architecture and cultures, urban history, and post-colonial criticism. His most recent books are: Mamluk History Through Architecture: Buildings, Culture, and Politics in Mamluk Egypt and Syria (London, 2010), and an edited book, The Courtyard Hous between Cultural Reference and Universal Relevance (London 2010). A forthcoming book, al-Nagd Iltizaman (Criticism as Commitment), will be published in 2014 in Beirut.
 

 
 
Egypt and Syria were governed during a quarter of a millennium (1250–1517) by a military aristocracy of non-Arab manumitted slave-officers. Did this unique regime create during that long period a distinctive culture? The answer to this question seems to be positive. The hypothesis that a Mamlūk culture can be identified is propped up in this article through a condensed account of contemporary literature, architecture and political discourse which were produced in the realm of the Mamlūk sultanate.
 
The Author
Yehoshua Frenkel got his Ph.D at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem with a thesis on “Rule, Society and Islam in Southern Morocco (during the 15th–17th centuries)”. Today, he is Senior Lecturer at the University of Haifa where he teaches social and juridical history of the Medieval Arabic speaking Islam.

 
 
The most important change in the land tenure system that occurred in Mamluk Egypt and Syria after the mid-fourteenth century was the expansion of the amount of agricultural land designated as waqf (Islamic religious endowment). This book shows how the expansion of waqf lands and the growing socio-economic influence of waqfs changed the mechanisms of Mamluk rule based on the iqṭāʻ system, a military-land system in which the rights of tax collection from arable land were allotted to the Mamluks in exchange for their military service. Through the discussion, it will become clear that, under the decline of the iqṭāʻ system, the Mamluks employed the waqf system as a vehicle for sustaining their power and rule, through which they acquired financial and social influence.
 
 
The Author
IGARASHI, Daisuke, Ph.D. (2006) in History, Chuo University (Tokyo, Japan), is Part-time Lecturer at Chukyo University (Nagoya, Japan) and Visiting Researcher at the University of Tokyo. Igarashi has published on Mamluk political, social, and economic history in Japanese and American journals.
 

 
 
The 15th century historian Ibn Taghrībirdī was one of the sons of Mamluks who succeeded in building a scholarly career. His knowledge of the language, customs and values of the Mamluk court allowed him to present the actions of the ruling elite in a manner that often differed from the reports of his scholarly colleagues. The present article examines the picture that Ibn Taghrībirdī painted of the rulers Shajar al-Durr, Aybak and Quṭuz. His presentation is contrasted to the portrayals provided by his two teachers Badr al-Dīn al-ʿAynī and al-Maqrīzī.
 
Irmeli Perho is Docent in Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Helsinki. She is teaching Islamic subjects and Arabic language. She has previously published ”Climbing the ladder: social mobility in the Mamluk period,” in Mamluk Studies Review, 15/1 (2011) and ”Ibn Qayyim al-Ğawziyyah’s Contribution to the Prophet’s Medicine,” in A Scholar in the Shadow: Essays in the Legal and Theological Thought of Ibn Qayyim al-Ğawziyyah, ed. Caterina Bori & Livnat Holtzman (2010).
 

 
 
Drawing on narrative sources, literature, and art, this essay purviews sports and sporting events in Mamluk Cairo through a case study of one particular game, the qabaq horseback archery. It then discusses the use of sporting events in Mamluk celebratory rites from the perspective of power, performance, and production of pleasure.
 
Li Guo (PhD, 1994, Yale University) is Professor and Director of The Program in Arabic Language and Culture, The Department of Classics, University of Notre Dame (Indiana, 46556, USA; lguo@nd.edu). He is the author of Early Mamluk Syrian Historiography: ­al-Yūnīnī’s Dhayl Mir’āt al-zamān (Brill, 1998), Commerce, Culture, and Community in a Red Sea Port in the Thirteenth Century: The Arabic documents from Quseir (Brill, 2004), and The Performing Arts in Medieval Islam: Shadow play and popular poetry in Ibn Dāniyāl’s Mamluk Cairo (Brill, 2012).
 

 
 
The renovations of the galleries of Islamic art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art completed in 2011 brought about changes to the way the museum's Mamluk collection is displayed. While employed on the New Galleries Project from 2008-2011, Dr. Kenney conducted research and developed interpretative materials connected with the Mamluk art reinstallation. Here, she analyses how the new Mamluk display relates to the surrounding exhibits and how its narratives are presented for the general museum audience. Following this, she profiles three objects from the collection - elements from a wooden minbar, an inlaid metalwork ewer, and a large marble jar - as examples of the aesthetic and documentary interest that the museum's collection holds for Mamluk studies specialists.
 

 
 
Most political histories of the Mamluk regime which ruled Egypt and Syria focus on the roles of the Sultans and Mamluk officers. When the non-elite are mentioned in the discussion of Mamluk politics, they remain a footnote to the larger drama, implying that the options available to them were restricted to violence or impotence. This article takes issue with this generalization and argues there was a role for the non-elite. One aspect of popular political participation, especially in urban centres, that is more evident in the sources is protest. The reports that survive suggest a more nuanced balance of power that involves a spectrum of urban protest from riots to negotiations. Despite the absence of formal institutions managing this participation, the non-elite of Cairo, Damiette, Damascus and Aleppo “interfered” in the political process to safeguard what they believed to be their interest or customary rights and to right what they perceived as wrongs committed against them, acting as checks of sorts on the political process. The surviving reports of protest in Egyptian and Syrian cities indicate that negotiation was an integral part of daily politics.
 
They also allow us to put a human dimension to the transition processes that Egypt and Syria were undergoing in the late middle ages, and to link the micro-history with the macro-history to better appreciate the challenges that the Mamluk order was facing. As a new world-system centered in Europe was developing in the 14th century, trade routes and the economic balance of power were shifting against the Mamluk regime’s interests. This, in addition to competition in the region and the devastating effects of the recurrent waves of plague, left the Mamluk state in financial difficulties. Many of the policies the regime resorted to in order to address the fiscal crises led to protests. This period of transition also saw the rise of new groups especially in urban centers, and the beginnings of a new civic consciousness at least on the part of scholars as is reflected in medieval Arabic historiography. Rather than an autocratic military regime totally divorced from its people and a passive and subservient population that stoically endures exploitation, protest allows us to glimpse a more vibrant and dynamic picture of life and politics in medieval Egyptian and Syrian cities.
 
The Author
Amina Elbendary is currently Assistant Professor and Middle East History Unit Head of the Department of Arab and Islamic Civilizations where she teaches courses on early and medieval Arab-Islamic history, Islamic political thought and socio-cultural history. She obtained her PhD from the University of Cambridge (2007). She has previously published “The historiography of protest in late Mamluk and early Ottoman Egypt and Syria,” International Institute of Asian Studies Newsletter 43 (Spring 2007), “The Worst of Times: Crisis Management and al-shidda al-ʿuzma,” in Money, Land and Trade: An Economic History of the Muslim Mediterranean, ed. Nelly Hanna (London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2002), and “The Sultan, The Tyrant and the Hero: Changing Medieval Perceptions of al-Zahir Baybars,” Mamluk Studies Review 5 (2001). She is currently finalizing a manuscript on urban protest in late medieval Egypt and Syria.

 
 
The Islamic writings of excellences (faḍāʾil) serve to describe the worldly order in the state of perfection. No matter which objects they depict, their common denominator is a complete lack of any deficiencies. No negative semantic is to be found bewailing anything imperfect or corrupted and demanding a remedy: the state of perfection is a necessary attribute of the worldly order.
 

 
 
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Jabartī’s (1753–1825) ʿAjāʾib al-āthār is the swan song of Arabic traditional historiography, composed by an author aware of the crucial role of European imperialism and its impact upon Islamic civilization. In composing this historical masterpiece, al-Jabartī was able to combine the Islamic religious and secular sciences of his day, and to do so as a critical author sensitive to the Islamic value system of justice and welfare. The study of Professor Shmuel Moreh from the Hebrew University reveals for the first time the traits of an ideal Muslim ʿālim as an advisor to the Mamluk rulers. Al-Jabartī’s main recommendation is to adhere to the Quranic principle “to enjoin good and forbid evil”. Thus he could criticize the tyranny of Muḥammad ʿAlī and the corruption of his contemporary religious scholars. The second principle is: “Power leads to corruption and oppression.” Therefore, the ʿulamāʾ should abstain from acquiring political power and from asking Mamluk emirs for favors. They should behave according to Qurʾanic regulations. Al-Jabartī believes that God rules the Universe through reward and punishment, and that Muḥammad ʿAlī’s restrictions on the influence of the ʿulamāʾ is a punishment from God for not following Islamic Law. By massacring the Mamluks (1811), the new ruler was able to implement his vision of a modern Egyptian state.
 
The Author
SHMUEL MOREH is Emeritus Professor of Arabic Language and Literature at the Institute of Asian and African Studies of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He was formerly Professor at Bar-Ilan University in Ramat-Gan and Chair of the Department of Arabic Language and Literature at Hebrew University (1979–1981).
During his career, Professor Moreh spent many periods abroad, namely as a Fellow at the Center for Near Eastern Studies of UCLA and as a Visiting Professor of Arabic Literature at UC-Berkeley’s Center for Near Eastern Studies, the G. von Grunebaum Center for Middle Eastern Studies at UCLA, and the Universities of Bonn (Germany), London University (SOAS), Manchester (UK), Life Member of Clare Hall (Cambridge-England), Helsinki University (Finland), Leiden University (The Netherlands), Oxford-Yarenton (England), Maryland University (USA), and Edinburgh University, Scotland.
Awarded the Israel Prize Laureate in 1999, Professor Moreh has received fellowships and grants from the Israel Academy for Scientific Research (Jerusalem), CNRS-Paris, The British Council Scholarship, The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), The German Israeli Foundation (GIF), The National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) (Paris-France), and Oxford Center for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, and Yarenton-Oxford (England).
 

Eine Wissenschaftlerin und ein Wissenschaftler arbeiten hinter einer Glasfassade und mischen Chemikalien mit Großgeräten.
© ASK Working Papers

"Working Paper" des Annemarie Schimmel Kollegs

Herausgegeben von Stephan Conermann und Bethany J. Walker

Die "Working Paper" des Annemarie Schimmel Kollegs "History and Society during the Mamluk Era (1250-1517)" flankieren im Zeitraum der Förderung der Kolleg-Forschergruppe durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft die im Druck publizierten weiteren Reihen derselben Einrichtung. Als "Working Paper" im Wortsinn bieten sie die aktuellsten Einblicke in die laufenden Forschungsvorhaben am Kolleg.

ASK Working Paper 31
211184848484

Sounds and pageantry play significant political and social roles. Giving meaning to sounds is a social production. They create an acoustic community. This was not strange to pre-modern authors. By studying Mamluk soundscape we gain new insights into the elites’ and commoners’ practices and discourse. Data by contemporaneous writers cast light on the role of music, on events that took place in the public sphere, and on reactions that these sounds generated. These sources tell that sounds were instrumental in boosting a sultans’ image and prestige. Recent studies highlight the diverse ethnic composition of the Mamluk military aristocracy. Texts that were produced by members of this ruling class illuminate public performances in Arabic and in Turkish, hence enrich our knowledge of the court culture and languages. From the accounts of sounds we can also deduce on scholarly ties that connected pre-Islamic Hellenistic civilization with the learned discussion that prevailed among Mamluk scholars. Sounds played a key role in religious rituals and ceremonies. Accounts of Sufi assemblies and visitors' guides provide thick descriptions of such communal events. Similar data can be extracted from pious endowments charters. Looking at the soundscape from an opposite angle we come across deeds that prevented non-Muslims from raising their voices in public spheres. Mamluk period Pact of Umar illuminates this socio-religious reality and sultan's efforts to control sounds in urban environments.
 

 
 
Taqiyy al-Dīn al-Maqrīzī (1364-1442) is one of the most important medieval Islamic historians. Chief among his books is the Kitāb al-Mawā‘iẓ wa-l-I‘tibār bi-Dhikr al-Khiṭaṭ wa-l-Āthār, abbreviated as the Khiṭaṭ. Written between 1415 and 1440, it is the most elaborate repository of topographic and historical information on Cairo and Egypt n general and, arguably, the first true urban history written in any language. My book aims to re-present al-Maqrīzī as a historian with an exhaustive and structured historical project that follows the changing fate of Egypt in time through annals, biographical dictionaries, and short treatises. The plan culminated in the Khitat, with which al-Maqrīzī started his project and which he was continuously redacting until his death. The Khiṭaṭ represents the conclusion of the cumulative narratives on the history of Cairo and illustrates in an almost visual way the ravages of immoral and unjust rule, which al-Maqrīzī blamed on the Mamluks of his time, on its architecture and urbanization. This was al-Maqrīzī's critical stance as it were, conceived and presented from within the epistemological framework of a medieval Muslim thinker; in other words, moralizing and inherently teleological, but still redolent with an anguished search for truth.
 

 
 
This paper tackles the issue of the luxury consumption goods made for the civilian elite during the Mamluk period, with a focus on the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, through the specific case of the preserved high quality metal objects, replacing them in the general context of the civilian architectural patronage in the main cities of the sultanate. The metal objects made for more or less outstanding individuals may have embodied their wealth, social status, as well as their interactions with the military elite. Most of the recipients remain anonymous or unknown. The case study of a candlestick in the Louvre Museum whose owner can be better identified provides an interesting glimpse into these social interactions. This new attribution offers a precise dating and new perspectives regarding a specific group of late Mamluk metalworks. It is here studied in connection to other closely related inscribed metal objects showing the same stylistic features, and whose poetic inscriptions reflect the literary culture of the civilian elites.         
 

 
 
Gaza emerged from the Crusading and Ayyubid periods as a small town of minor importance, particularly run down by incessant military activity in the area in the middle decades of the thirteenth century. Under the Mamluk Sultans from 1260 CE onward, the city regained much of its former importance, and perhaps, in some ways, reached new heights. It is described in Arabic and other sources as a prosperous center, not least due to it becoming the capital of a newly organized province around 1300. Other reasons behind these auspicious economic and demographic trends were the massive patronage of the Mamluk elite, a burgeoning agricultural hinterland and ongoing interregional trade. Probably the most important cause for the overall positive developments in the city and its surrounding countryside was the general sense of security provided by the Mamluk regime, including arrangements to keep local nomads (not only Bedouins, but also Kurds and Turkmans who immigrated to the area) under control and to integrate them into the local economy and administrative scheme. Gaza and its region also underwent a process of Islamization, encouraged by the Mamluk authorities. The city and its environs certainly took on a more Islamic appearance, due to construction of large and small buildings. There are increased Muslim religious activities of various kinds in mosques, madrasas, zawiyas and maqams. This may well indicate an increased Muslim population in the region, both in absolute and relative terms. Gaza can be seen an as example of such trends of Islamization in Palestine (and beyond) in the period between the end of Frankish rule and the coming of the Ottomans in 1516.
 

 
 
In recent decades the Abbasid caliphate of Cairo has continued to attract scholarly attention. An often neglected though noteworthy period of the caliphate’s tenure in Mamluk Cairo is the late fourteenth century reign of the caliph al-Mutawakkil ʿalā ʾllāh Muḥammad (r. 763-85/1362-83 and 791-808/1389-1406). Over the course of his time in office, al-Mutawakkil had been offered the sultanate on at least three occasions: at ʿAqaba in 1377, as an alternate candidate to the Circassian amir (and later sultan) Barqūq in 1382, and later during the rebellion of Yalbughā al-Nāṣirī and Minṭāsh in 1390. Al-Mutawakkil proved consistent in his refusal of the office and was wise enough to realize that any such assumption of interim power would likely spell his own political undoing. Nevertheless, competing Mamluk amirs time and again referred to his authori-ty and continued to put him forth as an acceptable contender for the sultanate. Based on sources from the Mamluk period and modern studies, this working paper addresses how and why the caliphate remained an important symbol in late fourteenth century Mamluk politics. 
 

 
 
Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Siyāsa al-sharʿiyya fī iṣlāḥ al-raʿī wa-l-raʿiyya is a very famous book. Al-Siyāsa al-sharʿiyya is also a complex work that displays a variety of meanings cohabiting together rather harmoniously. The generic and synthetic nature of this treatise, together with Ibn Taymiyya’s controversial legacy, has opened the way to many different claims of what the treatise is about. To some extent, the purpose of the present paper is simple. I intend to present and discuss the contents of Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Siyāsa al-sharʿiyya through a close reading of the text that will take into account two different editions of it so far unnoticed by Western scholars. By so doing, I hope that some of the prevailing ideas about what al-Siyāsa al-sharʿiyya fī iṣlāḥ al-raʿī wa-l-raʿiyya is can be complemented by new perspectives. In particular, I shall argue that the common view that the book is about the coercive power of the state as in punishment, jihad and public order is to be partially revisited and that pursuing a study of the text’s manuscript tradition is an urgent scholarly task. By focusing on the existence of different versions of Ibn Taymiyya’s treatise on siyāsa, the present paper also open questions about their possible meanings.
 

 
 
Amir ʿAlam al-Dīn Sanjar al-Shujāʿī (d. 693/1294) was a very influential and powerful amir, perhaps most recognized for his appointments to the vizierate in Egypt and for his role in the military campaigns against the Crusaders. Throughout his career he also acquired a great deal of experience supervising royal constructions for sultans Qalāwūn and al-Ashraf Khalīl. Consequently, he supervised over a dozen new constructions and renovations in Cairo and Greater Syria. The overwhelming majority of these buildings no longer survive and are only available to us in the sources. In this Working Paper the trajectory of Sanjar al-Shujāʿī’s life is traced from his upbringing in Damascus to his death at the hands of al-ʿĀdil Kitbughā, integrating his architectural activity along the way. While the most famous building project that Sanjar al-Shujāʿī supervised was the funerary complex of Sultan al-Mansūr Qalāwūn (683/1284-1285), the objective of this paper is profile his career more fully in order to identify patterns and insights into his style and its evolution, which can be used as a tool in the future to link him to projects that are not explicitly linked to him in the sources.
 

 
 
This working paper summarises the main research results of my research stay as a post-doc research fellow at the Annemarie-Schimmel-Kolleg. The aim of this research project is to cast light on knowledge brokerage between Ilkhanid Tabriz and Mamlūk Cairo during the third reign of the Mamlūk ruler an-Nāṣir Muḥammad (r. 1310-1341). Therefore, it focuses on the Sunni scholar Šams ad-Dīn Maḥmūd Ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Iṣfahānī (d. 749/1348) and his role as a philosophical broker in religious and educational foundations (ḫānqāhs) devoted in the first place to religious practices of Sufism. This working paper is divided into three parts: 1. the academic setting of the present post-doc research project, 2. a biography of Šams ad-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Iṣfahānī, and 3. an analysis of the text data of my research project from the perspective of both social and intellectual history.
 

 
 
As an institution that fulfilled both religious and civil functions, the mosque facilitated the establishment of Muslim rule and played an essential role in the consolidation and construction of the identity of the new emerging Muslim society. The aims of this research are twofold: the first is to record the mosques that were built throughout the region. The second aim of this project is to try and follow the pace of Islamization from the Arab conquest (638CE) up until the end of the Mamluk period (1517CE), by examining the spatial distribution of mosques in the region of what are today the modern states of Jordan, the Palestinian Authority and Israel. 
By recording the mosques built over the period under discussion and examining them in the wider historical frame one may well be able to provide a better picture of what might have occurred in this region. The corpus of mosques (which does not form part of this publication) is drawn from historical sources, the large body of inscriptions that commemorate the construction and/or repairs of mosques, and archaeological excavations and surveys.
The following is a preliminary analysis of this data. It is important to stress here that this work is still in progress and that the database may grow and the picture presented here may well change.
 

 
 
This working paper is a reflexive essay that tries to think with and beyond one of the basic assumptions upon which the field of late medieval Syro-Egyptian ‘Mamluk’ studies is built: the idea that all late medieval Syro-Egyptian objects of study are by default first and foremost connected, circumscribed and distinguished by some agency of dominant military slavery, of Mamluk-ness. Acknowledging that there may be different ways to pursue such an epistemological exercise, this essay opts for re-imagining the historical agency of what traditionally tends to be subsumed under the phenomenon of the Mamluk state. It is argued that the notions of state in modern research and of dawla in contemporary texts remain an issue of related analytical confusion. Engaging with this confusion in the generalising fashion of a historical sociology of late medieval Syro-Egyptian political action, this essay proposes an alternative analytical model that is inspired by Michael Chamberlain’s prioritisation of social practices of household reproduction and by Timothy Mitchell’s related understanding of the state as a structural effect of practices of social differentiation. The proposed model sees sultanic political order —the state— as process, in constant flux as the structural effect and structuring embodiment of constantly changing practices of social reproduction, of elite integration and of political distinction, in contexts that range between multipolar and unipolar social organisation at and around Cairo’s court and its military elites. The essay ends with summarily suggesting from this model how the socio-culturally structured and structuring memories of dynastic political order that had remained politically dominant for most of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were all but obliterated in the fifteenth century by a new layer of particularly ‘Mamluk’ socio-political meaning.
 

 
 
This paper consists of two parts. In Part One I trace the history of the name “Zawāwa” in the medieval Arabic sources both eastern and western from the early Islamic period until the 16th century. The near absence of any reference to the Zawāwa in the early sources for the history of the Maghrib stands in contrast to the frequent appearance of the term in later sources such as Ibn Ḫaldūn’s history and as-Saḫāwī’s biographical dictionary and I propose an explanation for this. In Part Two I have compiled biographical information on prominent Zawāwīs who lived in Egypt and Syria during the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods.
 

 
 
This Working Paper questions the concept of “Islamic Art History”. The term is amorphous: ever since the fundamental studies of Oleg Grabar we have known that the direct allocation of religion to art and vice versa raises questions. Art constitutes a cultural subsystem within societies. Sociologically, art has to be tied, or referred, to the realms of politics, economics, law, social orders, institutions and further cultural patterns. Only in the interplay with other cultural studies and the humanities is it possible to deconstruct art, considering its function and cultural context. Often enough it considers its task in the recording, description and classification of objects. This is, of course, an important and essential step, yet, it should not be the reason for stopping to ask further questions about the objects and, especially, to relate them to their socio-cultural context in which they emerged and to which they have to be related. In general, we ask how concepts current in postcolonial studies in disciplines such as history and comparative literature can help Islamic art historians to re-envision their objects of study.
 

 
 
This Working Paper describes the starting point for a post-doctoral project on the social, economic and political meaning and function of memorial architecture constructed during the Mamluk and early Ottoman time in a geographical area that today belongs to the kingdom of Jordan. The post-doctoral project aims at building up a sound documentation of these hitherto neglected structures of the Mamluk and early Ottoman Memorial architecture in this area; it will include a study of their function for the region, but also for the central power in Cairo and Syria in pre-modern times. An important issue of the post doc-project will be to unveil which images of history materialize in the architecture and how they were adapted and exploited by different groups from the past until today. 
This Working Paper provides also a short insight into the results of two short field researches in 2013 and 201, which where intended to gain a first insight into the structures, forms, condition and accessibility of the buildings. The methodological work in this post-doctoral project is intended to be interdisciplinary. The analysis is not limited to a philological, historical-critical evaluation of written source material, or an archaeological approach but also includes art historical analysis of the existing buildings and the technic of interviews in the overall consideration of memorial architecture in Jordan.
 

 
 
This paper offers new approaches on how to analyze ḥadīṯ collections and to make them useable for social and intellectual history. While focusing on the so called buldāniyyāt (geographical ḥadīṯ collections) – a subgroup of the forty ḥadīṯ collections – the study explores new forms of knowledge that an author includes into his collection to make it innovative for his reference group. The idea of what an innovative work should be is significantly related to the shared ideas of the reference group to which an author belongs and/or for which he writes. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the structure and content of the collection reveals something about the author’s very reference group and its shared ideas. Putting their contributions in the light of previous works, authors usually choose a strategy of knowledge specialization or knowledge brokerage to develop innovative moments in their work. Consequently, a comprehensive study of scholarly pieces needs to contextualize both the social context of the author and the intellectual references he makes.
In this paper, the focus shall lie on the buldāniyyāt of Šams ad-Dīn Muḥammad as-Saḫāwī (d. 902/1496). In a first step, his collection will be compared with preceding written buldāniyyāt to identify the knowledge specialization and knowledge brokerage processes that make his collection innovative in the context of the text group of the buldāniyya. In a second step, an analysis of as-Saḫāwī’s social and intellectual context, represented through horizontal and vertical intellectual and social ties, reveals that the concrete structure and content of his collection is also influenced by the shared ideas of his reference group.
 

 
 
The study that follows analyzes three examples from Islamic purity law (ṭahāra) as they evolve across four consecutive generations of substantive law (furūʿ) texts with the aim of understanding how the antipodal processes of šarḥ (expansion/commentary) and iḫtiṣār (abridgement) affect the substance of a legal tradition. Owing to their significance in the development and reception of the later Šāfiʿī maḏhab, the furūʿ works of the Mamlūk scholar and judge Zakariyyā al-Anṣārī (d. 926/1520) form the crux of the analysis here. Before examining specific passages from these works and their precursors, the study begins with an overview of al-Anṣārī’s position in the Šāfiʿī maḏhab, the idiosyncrasies of his legal prose, his major works in Šāfiʿī furūʿ, and their genealogical relationship to earlier texts in the tradition. In light of the textual examples presented, it concludes with a summary of the variables that influence a commentator’s control over the textual tradition at hand.
 

 
 
In 887/1482, two Damascene Ḥanbalī judges, Nāṣir ad-Dīn Muḥammad b. Zurayq (d. 900/1495) and Naǧm ad-Dīn ʿUmar b. Mufliḥ (d. 919/1513), stood accused of confiscation of waqf property and were summoned to Cairo to be interrogated and investigated by Sultan Qāʾitbāy. In this article I investigate this incidence of waqf manipulation, the lives of the accused parties after this event, and the ways in which later biographers, particularly Ibn Zurayq’s favorite student Šams ad-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ṭūlūn (d. 953/1546) and Ibn Mufliḥ’s grandson Akmal ad-Dīn b. Mufliḥ (d. 1011/1603), sought to reframe the event and, thereby, the legacy of the participants.
 

 
 
This paper is part of a larger project that will attempt to reconstruct the socio-economic dimensions of Damascus at the end of the Mamluk period, and which is primarily based on Ibn Ṭawq’s diary. The paper summarizes the author’s earlier study of divorce in Damascus life and focuses on marriages and bonds with female slaves and concubines. It argues that while, generally speaking, Damascus men were monogamous, quite a number owned slaves and concubines who mothered children. The paper illustrates these general conclusions by references to pertinent examples that Ibn Ṭawq provides.
 

 
 
The Maryut Basin was famous in antiquity for its freshwater lake and brisk economic activity. The basin was later infamous as a saltmarsh in the Ottoman period. In between (from the Islamic Conquest - 640 CE – to the end of the Mamluk period – 1517) – the basin it is said to have been a neglected brackish lake where freshwater from the few remaining irrigation canals from antiquity did battle with seawater from the Mediterranean. This article will argue that irrigation system development (1170-1315) may have allowed for farming (summer cropping in particular) of the south-east half of the Maryut Basin. The hypothesis is therefore that: the south-east section of the Maryut Basin and the lands bordering the basin, were part of a thriving and growing agricultural economy in the 1170-1315 period.
 

 

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This article reexamines wages in Egypt using new evidence not analyzed in my previous study of the late Mamluk economy (Borsch, The Black Death in Egypt and England, 2005). The results show that wages for unskilled labor fell precipitously from the 1300s to the 1400s and stayed at a very low level thereafter. Shown in the figure below are the primary quantitative results from approximately 300 wage listings from the late thirteenth century to the late seventeenth century.
 

 
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Al-Bīmāristān al-Manṣūrī (the Manṣūrī hospital), founded by the sultan al-Manṣūr Sayf ad-Dīn Qalāwūn (r. 678-689/1279-1290) at a moment of cultural shift, is both the object of this study and a lens through which to view the links between medicine, politics and culture in Mamluk Egypt and Syria. The exploratory research described here is intended to result in a history of this hospital that will cast light on aspects of the intellectual history of the Mamluk period that, despite several recent groundbreaking studies, still remains largely unknown and underappreciated. Two approaches have been used: 1) source analysis with primary focus on two documents, the diplomas for the riyāsat aṭ-ṭibb (chief physicianship in Egypt and Syria) and the tadrīs al-bīmāristān (chair of medicine at the hospital) examined with respect to their structure and three themes (ǧihād, ʿilm, and medical education) and 2) network analysis focusing on individuals who had some affiliation to the hospital whether as founder, later donor, physician, administrator, student, or patient. Although we have barely scratched the surface here, the paths followed seem promising as strategies to arrive at more than a descriptive history of the hospital and to provide insights into the role of the hospital within the context of the medicine, politics and wider intellectual currents and culture of the period. The textual analysis of two diplomas of appointment indicates that in addition to other possible purposes, the hospital was intended both to elevate the status of medicine as a discipline by rendering this foreign science less controversial in the Islamic context by demonstrating that medicine (ʿilm al-abdān) was integral to the religious sciences (ʿilm al-adyān) and ultimately to advance the Islamization of the medical profession. The analysis of networks of individuals with affiliations of various kinds to the hospital promises to yield insights into the links between medicine and power within the context of the wider cultural and intellectual environment. To date, this type of analysis also shows that despite the ǧihādī, exclusionary language and intentions of the documents at the formal level, actual relationships and networks at the time of the founding of the hospital were in fact more inclusive at the informal level at least at the beginning of the Mamluk era. This exploratory research opens new paths for studying the history of Mamluk society and intellectual history while raising more questions than it answers, such as, most basically, what role the hospital played in these developments?
 

 
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There is a considerable body of literature today on urban space in Mamluk studies. This is in large part due to the nature and survival of the textual sources, which reflect an urban bias and are preserved in city archives. Architectural studies of Mamluk cities also abound, as many monuments and even entire neighborhoods of the period have been preserved in the urban fabric of modern Cairo, Damascus, Aleppo, and Jerusalem. The same cannot be said, however, about the rural lands under Mamluk rule - namely settlements of village and sub-village size – about which we know precious little. While textual sources, and particularly documentary ones, can produce some information about rural life, if they are carefully mined, it is the archaeological record that offers us the greatest promise for reconstructing the physical structure of rural settlements, their function(s) and development over time, and details of the lives of the people who lived there. The focus of the 2013 excavation season at Tall Hisban, co-sponsored by the Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg of the University of Bonn, was to investigate the settlement associated with the Mamluk citadel and to explore the many factors that may have contribute to its growth, decline, and transformation over time.
 
The following essay is a preliminary, non-technical assessment of that fieldwork, highlighting the most important results relevant to a study of Mamluk-era rural life and raising important questions about changing relations between state and village in the seventh/ fourteenth century.
 

 
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The present brief contribution aims to shed light on a particular source, namely on official reports about natural disasters. These documents, known as maḥḍar (pl. maḥāḍir), were recorded by an inspector or an inspection team, following a severe event. They are a potential source for the study of Mamluk historical geography and have not been adequately studied until now. 
 

 
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The present paper evolved from a historical-legal research project. While searching for information about properties in Hebron (al-Ḫalīl), which the offspring of the ṣaḥābī Tamīm al-Dārī claimed, I stumbled upon a popular story. In this story Tamīm is portrayed as a hero who has been kidnapped by ǧinns and endured ordeals and adventures on remote islands. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the text and its reception by the Mamluk society. Inter alia, I will describe the audiences, and will try to elucidate the supposed connections between Tamīm the historical character and Tamīm the literary hero.
Since there is slight positive evidence to indicate that this text is “Mamluk,” one may ask why my talk is about a “sīra šaʿbiyya” in the Mamluk environment? What makes it “Mamluk”? What is Mamluk in the story? My answer is based primarily upon circumstantial evidence, and I will return to it at the closing section of this paper.
 

 
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The economic and cultural rise of parts of the ʿāmma due to the particular economic and infrastructural conditions of the Mamluk era fostered the emergence of new intermediate levels of literature that were situated between the literature of the elite and that of the utterly ignorant and unlettered populace, between the Arabic koiné (al-ʿarabiyya al-fuṣḥā) and the local dialects (ʿāmmiyya-s), between written and oral composition, performance and transmission. The following paper proposes to analyze the composition of three Mamluk adab-encyclopedias and their treatment of poverty and wealth in light of the social milieus of their authors and publics.
 

 
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Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm al-Biqāʿī’s ego-document is at the heart of the present paper. The author provides a rich account of Mamluk military operations in Cyprus and al-Qashtīl al-Rūj (Château Roux/Kastelorizo/Castellorizo) Island. It is not an impartial or “objective” story, but rather an observer-participant report of a naval expedition by a well-known administrator and writer. The detailed text reflects the author’s self-presentation and interpretation of events and deeds. It casts light on historiography under the Mamluks, as well as on the history of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 15th century.
 

 
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The Mamluk Sultanate has been considered as the arena in which the "Mamluk principles" were expressed most clearly. According to the prevalent view among modern scholars, in the Mamluk Sultanate dynastic and hereditary tendencies were rather weak. Generally, students of the Mamluk Sultanate tend to underestimate the importance of relationships based on blood ties, marital ties and ethnic solidarity. Instead, they emphasize the importance of mamlūk connections. 
 
It is here argued, that throughout the entire period of the Mamluk Sultanate blood ties, marital ties and ethnic solidarity were more important than it is commonly believed. Notwithstanding this, significant changes in patterns of social ties are noticeable after the transition to the Circassian period. Only then a considerable decline of the social and political importance of the nuclear family occurred, and mamlūk ties became increasingly significant. This change led to an erosion of the dynastic and hereditary practices. This change did not arise from the alleged principle that non-mamlūks were unfit for holding key positions. It was rather the result of circumstances unique of the Circassian period.
 

 
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The study compares the profiles of judges (qāḍīs), deputy qadis (nāʾibs), and the personnel of the courts in Damascus mainly in the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries. Although both the Mamluks and the Ottomans were committed to the Sharīʿah law, their legal and administrative practices and policies were quite different. This was the result of the obvious political realities and the status of Damascus within the Mamluk and the Ottoman states. Damascus in the transition period is a good test case, owing to the many excellent sources in sixteenth century Damascus, that were even richer than the sources of Cairo during the same period. The involvement of the qadis with the local population under both rules and their relations with the center (Cairo and then Istanbul) are recorded in the chronicles, biographical dictionaries and other literary and documentary sources of Damascus. The social and cultural differences between the local (Arabic speaking) qadis and the Turkish speaking nominees from Istanbul call for an extensive comparative study.
 

 
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This paper deals with the question how one occupant of 15th-century Damascus perceived his hometown and how he transferred this perception into writing. The key witness in this endeavour is the notary Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, known as Ibn Ṭawq (834-915/1443-1510). He amassed a lengthy account encompassing several decades of his life. As Li Guo stated in a recent review article: “It is evident that the author’s motivation and impulse for writing the diary lay in his consummate interest in the wellbeing of himself, his community […], and his place: Damascus and its suburbs.” But is this really his place? Is it restricted to the city and the suburbs?
 
In this paper, the author aims to address the question of whether 15th-century Damascenes made a distinction between the city and the countryside. This question will be approached from two directions. Firstly, does the author describe the rural geography differently from the urban one? Does he make a distinction between a physical entity of the city and its surroundings? And secondly, does he single out any groups as alien or different because of their rural background?
 

 
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The present paper is an attempt to define the ways in which the process of radicalization of Islam influenced the medical culture of Egypt and Syria under the Mamluks. Both the transformation of medical culture and the impact of this transformation on medical theory and practice are discussed, above all, in the context of the inter-faith antagonism. The work is in progress, so some of the interpretations are of preliminary character and require further investigation.
 
As an area of research, the microcosm of non-Muslim physicians living and working in the Mamluk state is rather capacious and non-uniform. As such, it can be approached from a number of perspectives. On the most obvious level, the subject belongs, on the one hand, to the social history of medicine; on the other, it forms a part of the history of inter-communal and inter-faith antagonisms. The present study aims at investigating the area where medical culture and inter-communal conflict overlapped. This area constitutes in fact a rather complex puzzle in which the issues of sickness and health were interwoven with ideology, politics, and propaganda based both on the “time-honored tradition” of blaming the doctor and the fear of (and animosity towards) the religious Other. In other words, this is interdisciplinary research, focused on the social aspects of medicine, inter-communal antagonism, and the interaction between them.
 
Approaching such a complex subject matter from just one of the possible perspectives would mean depriving it of its rich and multifaceted context. In order to make the study comprehensive, I have decided to apply a mode of inquiry which is sometimes used by historians of the Alltag, and which allows the scholar to combine many different instruments, including those that are typical for fields such as anthropology, sociology, or social psychology. This mode also makes it possible to make comparisons with other cultures.
 

 
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The Kolleg will provide an institutional center for a period of eight years for the 50-60 Mamluk scholars who are dispersed all over the globe. The concept emphasizes two issues: Firstly, the Kolleg members will provide long-lasting impulses for Mamluk Studies through their individual projects (a specific “Mamluk Studies” series, a Compendium on the History and Society of the Mamluk Era, an online bibliography, articles in the Mamluk Studies Review). In addition, the Speaker will, supported by a research professorship (“Annemarie-Schimmel-Chair for Mamluk Studies”), and in cooperation with four of his Bonn colleagues [Mathias Becher (Medieval History), Ralph Kauz (Sinology), Peter Schwieger (Tibetology), Reinhard Zöllner (Japanology)] integrate the Mamlukists by means of topic-oriented annual programs (1st Year: The Mamluk Empire in its “Global” Context , 2nd Year: Economic Areas of Interaction, 3rd Year: “Rule” in the Mamluk Empire - A Cross-cultural Comparison, 4th Year: Culture-specific Narrative Strategies in Mamluk Era Historiographical Sources) into interdisciplinary and innovative research topics. Young Arabic scholars will receive focused support within a group of scholarship recipients that will be integrated into the Kolleg.
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