Persian Online Periodicals

So far, 27 Persian journals have been completely digitized and are published in the Digital Collections of the University and State Library of Bonn. The digital copies - as JPEG and PDF files - are available online for free.

For further information about the digitized periodicals, their content and their history, please read our texts below, as well as our Wikipedia articles in English and German.

Akhtar (Aḫtar)

The Persian periodical Akhtar (“Star“) was founded in 1876, following the suggestion of the Persian ambassador in Istanbul at that time, and was published until its discontinuation in 1896. Editor and director was Agha Mohammed Taher Tabrizi, the editor in chief Mirza Mehdi Tabrizi (1839-1907) was the founder of the Khorshid Publishing House in Istanbul and later the editor of Hekmat (1892-1912) in Cairo. Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan Kashani, who founded the periodical Sorayya (1898-1904) later published in Cairo, also briefly worked for the journal.
At the beginning, Akhtar - the first non-official press medium - was published almost daily, later twice - and eventually once a week. The distribution of this journal extended from many cities of Iran and the Ottoman Empire to the Caucasus and South East Asia. It served as a mouthpiece for Iranians in Diaspora and was used by the Persian embassy and the consulate in Istanbul as a newsletter. Alongside political daily reports it contained domestic and international news, articles on scientific and literary topics as well as reports from correspondents and letters from Iran. Even though Akhtar as a journal published in exile could report more freely, the Ottoman censors suspended it several times. After the assassination of ad-Din Shah in 1896, the Ottoman government permanently banned the journal.

cf. Pistor-Hatam, Anja (1992): Iran und die Reformbewegung im Osmanischen Reich. Persische Staatsmänner, Reisende und Oppositionelle unter dem Einfluss der Tanẓīmāt, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.

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Ayandeh (Āyande)

The Persian journal Ayandeh was founded in Teheran by Mahmud Afshar (1893-1983) in 1925. The monthly journal was published in three issues with 46 numbers in total. The first number goes from June 1925 to March 1928 (24 issues), the second from October 1944 to March 1945 (16 issues) and the third from October 1959 to April 1960 (6 issues). The editor Afshar, who studied political science in Switzerland, wanted to disseminate the Persian language as well as the idea of Iran’s national unity in his politically and culturally oriented journal. Articles and poems by over 90 authors took up historical and contemporary topics from politics, economy, education and culture. Seyyed Hasan Taghizade, editor of the journal Kaveh (1916-1922) was among the well-known authors, as was Hoseyn Kazemzadeh-Iranshahr, editor of the journal Iranshahr (1922-1927). Up-to-date, historically relevant political documents as well as pictures of renowned politicians and translations of European literature were also published. Due to countless acts of censorship against the press, Ayandeh probably had to be discontinued in 1960. After the Iranian revolution in 1979, Iraj Afshar (1925–2011), the son of Mahmud Afshar, republished the journal, now with a more scientific focus, until 1994.

cf. Ghahari, Keivandokht (2001): Nationalismus und Modernismus im Iran in der Periode zwischen dem Zerfall der Qāǧāren-Dynastie und der Machtfestigung Reża Schahs. Eine Untersuchung über die intellektuellen Kreise um die Zeitschriften Kāweh, Īrānšahr und Āyandeh, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.

Baba Shamal (Bābā Šamal)

The persian journal Baba Shamal was one of the most famous political satire magazines in Iran. It was published weekly between 1943 and 1945 by Reżā Ganjaʾī (1918-1995). After his return from Europe in 1947, 50 volumes more were distributed. Ganjaʾī was a cabinet member and a university professor for engineering. Before and after his publishership Ganjaʾī hold some important positions in ministeries and in the banking and insurance sector. He published his articles under the pseudonym “Donb-al-mohandesīn“. Many well-known iranian satirists, poets and authors belong to his supporters and co-workers, i.a. Rahī Moʿayyerī („Zāḡča“), Eqteṣād („Shaikh Pašm-al-Dīn“), Fozūnī („Mohandes-al-Šoʿarāʾ“) and Ṣahbā („Shaikh Somā“).
The journal was widely-spread in Iran and was characterized by its everyday language and colloquial style. The general satirical opinion of the authors found its expression in current daily politics which was supplemented by partly colored caricatures and drawings. In general, the journal's position was nationalistic, independent and moderate. However, its critique lead -under the pressure of censorship- to its suspension in 1947.

cf. Elwell-Sutton, Lawrence (1968): "Iranian Press 1941-47", Iran 6, p. 80.

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Bahar (Bahār)

The Persian-language magazine Bahar ("Spring") was founded in Teheran in 1910 by Mīrzā Yūsof Khan Āštīānī, also called E'teṣām-e Daftar and E'teṣām-al-Molk (1291-1356 / 1874-75-1937-38), a Persian poet and journalist. It was published monthly in two volumes (1910-1911 and 1921-1922) in 17 or 16 editions. At the beginning the publisher aimed to provide a forum for literary, scholarly, historical and political exchanges, as well as for the spread of information. The published articles were primarily written or translated by E'teṣām-al-Molk himself. Editor-in-chief of the first volume was Mīrzā Reżā Khan Modabber-al-Mamālek, the later editor of Tamaddon (1920). Abbās Ḵalīlī, who also published Eqdām, (1921) acted as editor-in-chief of the second volume. Under Ḵalīlī the publication of literary topics and espacially translations of European literature increased. Well-known examples include works of Victor Hugo and Rousseau as well as Lermontov's "Demon." Discussions of contemporary Persian literature and literary criticism became increasingly popular among readers.

cf. Rypka, Jan (1959): Iranische Literaturgeschichte. Leipzig: VEB Otto Harrassowitz.
cf. Yūsofī, Ḡ.-Ḥ. (2011): Bahar. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica.

Danesh (Dāneš), 1882

Danesh ("Knowledge") is the title of seven different Persian-language journals published since 1882. This biweekly science magazine was the first one published in Teheran by the University of Dār al-fonūn in 1882.
By order of the Minister of Science 'Alīqolī Khan Moḵber-al-Dawla, who worked under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1264-1313 / 1848-96), a total of 14 issues were edited.
Danesh was the first free-of-charge magazine in Iran which offered free advertising as well. The magazine probably aimed to close the gap caused by the closure of the well-known science magazine Rūz-nāma -ye'elmī . The leading editor was Moḥammad Kāẓem, a science teacher at Dār al-fonūn, who had studied in Europe. In addition to Kāẓem, other teachers also published articles on scientific and medical topics and their own opinions. Moreover, the magazine was considered to be a mouthpiece of the Ministry of Science.

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Danesh (Dāneš), 1910-1911

Danesh (“Knowledge“) entitled seven different persian periodicals which have been published since 1882. This digitized journal Danesh was a persian women’s journal which was edited in Teheran. It was published weekly from 1910 until 1911 (1328-1329 hš) in 30 issues. The editor was the wife of Dr. Hosseyn Khan (Kahal) and the daughter of Yaqub Jadid al-Eslam Hamadani. Her own name is not known. Moreover Danesh was Iran’s first journal especially for women. Political topics were not part of the content but rather domestic issues in which the women were interested in at that time. In addition articles on topics like education and parenting were published as well as chapters of serialised novels.

cf. Browne, Edward G. (1914): The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
cf. Rabino, H. L. (1911/1329): Ṣūrat-e jarāyed-e Īrān wa jarāyed-ī ke dar ḵārej az Īrān be zabān-e fārsī ṭabʿ šoda ast, Rašt.
cf. Soltani, M. (1975/1354): Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye fārsī dar majmūʿa-ye ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī wa markaz-e asnād-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān, marbūṭ be sālhā-ye 1267-e qamarī tā 1320-e šamsī, Tehran.
cf. Tabatabai, M. Mohit (1987/1366): Tārīḵ-etaḥlīlī-e maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān, Tehran.

Daneshkada (Dāneškada)

Dāneškada was a monthly literary journal published by the Tehran publishing house in Tehran from April 1918 to April 1919. It was the second literary periodical established in Persia, after the magazine Bahār. The journal was founded by the poet, literary critic, and scholar Moḥammad-Taqi Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Bahār and named after his organization and other leading Persian literary figures such as Ḡolām-Reżā Rašid Yāsemi, ʿAli-Asḡar Heḳmat, ʿAbbas Eqbāl and Saʿid Nafisi. Most of the articles, poems, and translations of Dāneškada were contributed by them. Due to their popularity, the magazine became famous and had a strong influence on literary development in early 20th century Persia. The aims of Dāneškada were defined by Bahār as follows: Dāneškada was to create and promote innovations in literature without completely breaking from traditional norms. The journal also adopted parts of Western literature and included translations of works by Johann Friedrich Schiller, Alexandre Dumas, Jean de La Fontaine, and other European writers.

cf. Parvin, Nassereddin (2002): DĀNEŠKADA. In: Encyclopædia Iranica.

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Habl al-Matin (Ḥabl al-matīn)

The Persian-language magazine Habl al-Matin ("Strong cord"), one of the most important political journals during the Iran Constitutional Revolution, was published daily in Teheran from 1907 to 1908.
One volume with a total of 274 issues was published. Founded as subsidiary of the magazine Habl al-Matin which was published in Calcutta it should offer current news about Iran. The founders and owners were Moayyed-al-Eslam, publisher of the Indian Habl al-Matin and his younger brother Sayyed Hasan. As of the 20th edition, Shaikh Yajya Kashani, a well-known journalist and owner of the magazines Majles, Irān and Irān-e emruz was nominated as editor. During the Constitutional Revolution, Hasan used the journal in order to support the movement in June 1908. The magazine was suspended after the coup d'état of Mohammed Ali Shah and Sayyed Hasan was exiled.

cf. Browne, Edward G. (1983): The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press.
cf. Parvin, Nassereddin (2002): “ḤABL AL-MATIN”, in: Encyclopædia Iranica,

Jangal (Ǧangal)

The periodical Jangal (“Forrest“) was founded in 1917 by the Nehzat-e Jangal (“Jangali-movement“, 1914–1921) in Gilan. Mirza Kuchak Khan (1880/1882–Dezember 1921), a young revolutionary and the founder and leader of this movement was fighting together with the Ettehad-e Eslam committee (“Islamic Unity“) in the forests of Northern Iran. Their movement was directed against – among others – large landowners as well as the exertion of influence coming from the British and Tsarist Russia. In June 1920, the Jangalis joined forces with the Communist Party of Iran and proclaimed the Socialist Republic of Gilan, which was re-conquered by Reza Khan Pahlavi (later: Reza Shah Pahlavi) in November 1921. The journal was the mouthpiece of the Jangalis and partially published by Mirza Hoseyn Kasma'i (1862–1921). They spread their opinion and critique in 31 issues by means of literary texts and cultural symbolism. They had many ideas in common with the nationalism of state elites: aspiring the compatibility of Islam, Iranian nationalism and socialism.

cf. Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh (2000): Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804-1946. I.B. Tauris.
cf. Shakeri, Khosro (2007): Milade Zakhm: Jonbesh-e Jangal va Jomhuri-ye-ye Shoravi Sozialistischen-e Iran (Die Geburt der Läsion: Der Jangali Bewegung und der Beratende Sozialistischen Republik Iran). Akhtaran Presse: Teheran.
cf. Wahdat-Hagh, Wahied (2003): Die Islamische Republik Iran. Die Herrschaft des politischen Islam als eine Spielart des Totalitarismus. LIT: Münster.

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Kaveh (Kāve)

The Persian-speaking exile periodical Kaveh was founded in 1916 by the Intelligence Agency for the Orient (Nachrichtenstelle für den Orient – NfdO) of the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin. It was published twice a month between 1916 and 1922 by Seyyed Hasan Taghizade (1878–1970) and Seyyed Mohammad Ali Jamalzade (1892–1997). The title refers to an Iranian mythical hero: Kaveh, a smith from Isfahan.

The process of publication is divided into an old issue, a new issue and the final special issue. The old issue (1916–1919) consists of four year’s issues with 35 numbers, six of them a double number. It was mainly an instrument of propaganda for the German Reich’s policy towards the East. After the end of the war and the dissolution of the NfdO, the German Orient Institute (DOI) and the Federal Foreign Office decided on continuing the financing of the periodical. The new issue (1920–1922) is divided into 25 numbers with a double number, although the first year’s issue was – in continuation of the old issue – incorrectly labeled as year’s issue five instead of year’s issue one. As to content, it predominantly addressed literary and scientific topics. By 1922, Kaveh was not funded anymore and thus discontinued.

cf. Epkenhans, Tim (2000): Die iranische Moderne im Exil. Bibliographie der Zeitschrift Kāve, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.

Majlis (Maǧlis)

The Persian-language journal Majlis ("Parliament", "Assembly") was published in Tehran between 1906 and 1908. A total of 325 issues was edited in one volume. Each issue consisted of eight pages and was distributed free of charge. Majlis was considered to be the journal of the Constitutional Revolution and the mouthpiece of the Parliament. It was dedicated to publishing Parliament's negotiations and their results directly and unfiltrated to the public.
Mirza Mohsen Mojtahed was the editor and its chief editor was Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Tabatabaei. The magazine provided as much information about the rural dimension of the revolution as about the socio- economic situation in the country at that time as well as the various strikes and protests. Letters to the editor also reflected the prevailing controversies between intellectuals, conservatives and the peasantry on various political issues. During the period of its publication, the magazine was not subject to any state censorship.

cf. Afary, Janet (1991): Peasant Rebellions of the Caspian Region during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1909. In: International Journal of Middle East Studies, Bd. 23, Nr. 2, p. 137-161.

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Mihr (Mehr)

The Persian science and literary monthly magazine Mihr („The Sun“) was published between 1933/34 and 1967/68 in a total of 30 issues. The editor was Majid Movaqqar, and since 1953 the renowend bibliographer, historian, and scholar of Persian studies Iraj Afshar became his successor. Afshars father, the scholar Mahmoud Afshar, founded the journal Āyandeh, that paid special attention to Persian language.

cf. Rypka, Jan, van Popta-Hope, P. (1968): History of Iranian literature. Deutschland: Springer Netherlands.
cf. Yarshater, Ehsan (2000): Iraj Afshar (1925-2011). In: Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition,

Nama-i Farhangistan (Nāma-i Farhangistān)

The Persian-language journal Nama-i haftegi-i kuhistan (Nāma-i haftegi-i kūhistān; نامه هفتگی کوهستان;) was published in Teheran between 1945 and 1947. The licensee and managing director of the journal was Dr. Ismail Ardalan. According to its own statements, the journal is independent of any party or specific groups.Two volumes with a total of 84 issues were published. Each issue consists of 8 pages.

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Nashriya-i Madrasa-i Mubaraka-i Dar al-Funun-i Tabriz (Našrīya-i Madrasa-i Mubāraka-i Dār al-Funūn-i Tabrīz)

The Persian-language magazine Nashriya-i Madrasa-i Mubaraka-i Dar al-Funun-i Tabriz was published in Tabriz from 1893 to 1894. It was printed monthly in a total of four issues. In terms of content, the journal was specialised in distributing topics like the technical production and the economy of Tabriz.

cf. Mansoureh Ettehadieh (Nezam-Mafi) and Said Mir Muhammad Sadeq (2001): Newspapers and Journals Reprinted from 1991 to 2001. In: Iranian Studies, 34(1/4), 195-201.

Nowruz (Naurūz)

The Persian-language magazine Nowruz („New day“ or „New Year“) was published in Teheran between 1903 and 1904. A total of 48 issues was edited weekly in a single volume. In terms of content, the journal focused particularly on scientific articles and on education and job training in Iran.

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Ruh al-Qudus (Rūḥ al-Qudus)

The Persian-language journal Ruh al-Qudus ("The Holy Spirit") was published biweekly from 1907 till 1908 in Tehran in a total of 29 editions. The editor was Sultan al-'Ulama Khorasani (1839-1911), a Shiite religious scholar and political activist known for supporting the Constitutional Revolution in Iran (1905-1911) and for his criticism of Mohammed Ali Shah's government. The foundation of this revolutionary opposition journal aimed to publish opinions on prevailing political and social conditions and to openly criticize the inconveniences. Because of its not necessarily simple language, it is assumed that a more politically educated and oppositional readership should be reached.
Together with the magazines Musavat and Sur-e Esrafil, Ruh al-Qudus contributed significantly to the support of the Constitutional Revolution through its revolutionary and aggressive orientation. After Mohammad Ali Shah's accession to the throne and the counterrevolution in June 1908, the magazine, as many other Iranian press mediums, was finally banned.

cf. Catanzaro, Christl (1995): "Leserbriefe in Ṣûr-e Esrâfîl und Rûḥ ul-Qods als Forum des Informationsaustausches für die Intelligenzija der Mašrûṭîyat-Zeit“, S. 16. In: Herzog, Christoph, Raoul Motika und Anja Pistor-Hatam (Hrs.): Presse und Öffentlichkeit im Nahen Osten. Heidelberg. S. 15-22.
cf. Hairi, A. (2011): “Akund Korasani,” in: Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, S. 732-735.

Ruznama-yi Millati (Rūznāma-i millatī)

The Persian-language magazine Ruznama-yi Millati („The National Journal“) was published between 1866 and 1870 in Tehran. It was published monthly in a total of 33 issues. Together with the magazines Ruznama-i Dawlati and the Ruznama-i ʿilmi, Ruznama-yi Millati used to be published under the superintendence of Iʿtizāduʾ s-Salṭana. The upper part of each page shows the figure of a mosque, which displays the national character of the magazine.
Its content focuses primary on the bibliographies of famous poets. A stated goal of the magazine was to move away from the written language of the elite to the spoken language of the masses by adopting a style directed toward communication with the people (mardum).

cf. Atabaki, Touraj (2009): Iran in the 20th Century: Historiography and Political Culture. London: I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2009. p. 17.
cf. Browne, Edward Granville und Muḥammad ʿAlī Tarbīyat (1983): The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia: Partly Based On the Ms. Work of Mírzá Muḥammad ʿAlí Khán Tarbiyat" of Tabríz. Cambridge 1914. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press, p. 96f.

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Sharaf (Šaraf)

The monthly magazine Sharaf („Dignity“) was published in Teheran between 1882 and 1891. Under the management of Mohammad Hasan Khan, Etemad-Saltaneh (1840-1895), a total of 87 issues in one volume was published. This magazine became famous for its numerous and elaborate illustrations and photographs.
Mohammad Hasan Khan was graduated from the well-known Dar al-Funun University of Technology and in Paris as a historian and geographer. He was at the same time minister of the cabinet of Naser-ed-Din Shah. For the illustrations of the magazine he employed the most famous calligraphers, painters and photographers. Their artworks complemented the biographies and portraits of famous Iranian and foreign notables, politicians and artists of that time, on their publication Sharaf was specialized. The magazine changed and revolutionized the art and painting of that time.

Sharafat (Šarāfat)

The monthly magazine Sharafat („Honour“) was published in Teheran between 1896 and 1903. Under the management of Mohammad Bagher Khan, a minister of the cabinet of Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah, a total of 66 issues in one volume was published. Like Sharaf, as its successor, this magazine was also known for its numerous and elaborate illustrations and photographs. The magazine continued the tradition of Sharaf by focusing on publishing portraits and biographies of well-known Iranian and foreign notables, politicians and artists of that time, supplemented by numerous and elaborate illustrations and photographs. Sharafat changed and revolutionized the art and painting of that time.

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Sharq (Šarq)

The Persian-language magazine Sharq ("East") was published from 1924 to 1932 in Teheran. The first volume with two issues was edited by Moḥammad Ramażāni (1904-67), the owner of the publishing house Kolāla-ye ḵāvar, ʿAli Dašti and Naṣr-Allāh Falsafi. From 1930 on and under the leadership of Saʿid Nafisi (1895 – 1966), a Persian scholar, writer and poet, a second volume with a total of 12 issues was released.

The literary magazine published especially Persian literature and articles on Persian history and its neighboring countries. The editor wanted to introduce and familiarize the well-known Persian literature to a broad readership and to inform them about the latest recent books. Further, Persian translations of famous international works, such as Schiller's Maria Stuart, were published.

cf. Parvin, Nasserddin (2009): „Šarq“, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition,

Shokufeh (Šukūfe)

After the publication of the first Persian women’s magazine Danesh in Tehran in 1910-1911, Shokufeh ("Blossom"), the next Persian magazine only for women, was established in 1913. The editor was Maryam Amid Mozayen ol-Saltaneh, the daughter of Aqa Mirza Sayyed Razi Ra’is al-Atebba, a high-ranking medical advisor at the Qajar court. Almost at the same time, Mozayen ol-Saltaneh founded the Iranian Women’s Society Anjoman Khavatin Irani, which objectives she published in the Shokufeh magazine. She supported particularly the promotion of Iranian products and industry as well as education, science and art among women.
At first the magazine dealt predominantly with topics that concerned mainly women, like equality of rights, education, upbringing, hygiene and ethics. In the course of the work of the Iranian Women’s Society the topics started to be more political, whereby the national independence and the woman's role were addressed. Shokufeh claimed not to interfere in the men's political sphere, but was unable always to keep to it, which brought the magazine under censorship. After Mozayen ol-Saltanehs death in 1919 the publication of Shokufeh was suspended.

cf. Amin, Camron Michael (2002): The Making of the Modern Iranian Woman: Gender, State Policy, and Popular Culture, 1865-1946, Gainesville: Florida University Press.
cf. Paidar, Parvin (1995): Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran, Cambridge: University Press.
cf. Sedghi, Hamideh (2007): Women and Politics in Iran: Veiling, Unveiling, and Reveiling, Cambridge: University Press.

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Siraj al-Akhbar (Sirāǧ al-ah̲bār)

Online Version

cf. Iranica Online

Sur-e Esrafil (Ṣūr-e Esrāfīl)

The Persian-language weekly journal Sur-e Esrafil (“Trumpet of Esrafil“) was published between May 1907 and March 1909. The first 32 issues were published by the founder of the journal Mirza Jahangir Khan (1870-1908) who was an Iranian author and journalist. With its liberal and revolutionary content orientation Sur-e Esrafil did contribute significantly to the support of the Constitutional Revolution. The editor published articles in which the power relations at that time and the social situation in the country were stridently criticized and in which also controversies between conservative and modern clergy were discussed. But the journal became well-known and famous because of its literary satirical element. Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (1879-1956) was responsible for the satirical article in the column „Charand-o Parand“ („Nonsense“) this stood out by a simple linguistic style from the rather literary style which was addressed to the intelligentsia. In this way he wanted to reach the majority of the population and to address the daily problems of the common man. In the course of the repressions and by the command of Mohammad Ali Shah the journal was finally banned in June 1908. Mirza Jahangir Khan was imprisoned and executed. In January 1909 Dekhoda led to a revival of Sur-e Esrafil. He published 3 other issues of the journal from Switzerland.

cf. Browne, Edward G. (1914): The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia, Cambridge: University Press.
cf. Catanzaro, Christl (1995): "Leserbriefe in Ṣûr-e Esrâfîl und Rûḥ ul-Qods als Forum des Informationsaustausches für die Intelligenzija der Mašrûṭîyat-Zeit“. In: Herzog, Christoph, Raoul Monika und Anja Pastor-Hatam (Eds.): Presse und Öffentlichkeit im Nahen Osten. Heidelberg: Heidelberger Orientverlag.

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The Persian Tarbiyat was the first non-governmental newspaper in Iran. It was founded by Mirza Mohammad Hosseyn Foroughi, also known as Zaka-al Molk, in Teheran in 1896 and was published until 1907. For Foroughi, who was a poet and also worked as a translator for Naser al-Din Shah, the acquisition of modern sciences was of decisive importance for the development of the country and its society. Contrary to the common perception of traditional education and science, he wanted to contribute to the modernisation of the Iranian society by publishing this journal.
The publication history of the nine years with a total of 434 issues varied between daily, weekly and monthly publications. The various articles deal with topics such as history and geography but also with medical and other scientific essays. Particularly due to its literary focus and the publication of numerous translations the journal was a literary pioneer of that time.

cf. Ebrahimejad, Hormoz (2014): Medicine in Iran: Profession, Practice and Politics, 1800-1925, Palgrave.
cf. Kamshad, Hassan (1966): Modern Persian Prose Literature, Cambridge: University Press.
cf. Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh (2000): Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804-1946, Princeton University Press.

Urdū-i humāyūn

The Persian-language journal Urdu-i Humayun was published during the first journey of Naser al-Din Shah and his companions to Khorasan in 1880. Previously, it was published under the title "Meraat Al-Safar". The editor of the journal was Mohammad Hassan Khan Etemad-ol-Saltaneh. He was a member of the royal army and carried a small printing press. Whenever the content of an issue was completed, he printed it whilst travelling. By 1882, a total of 13 issues had been published. In 1984, Urdu-i Humayun was reprinted under the efforts of Iraj Afshar.

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Yadgar (Yādgār)

The Persian-language journal Yadgar (“Monument”) was published from 1944 to 1949 in a total of 50 issues in Teheran. Its editor was Abbas Iqbal (1896-1955), a Persian historian and nationalist. In terms of content, the journal specialised in literary and especially historical researches on Iran.

cf. Avery, Peter (1991): Printing, the Press and Literaturen in modern Iran. In: Avery, Peter, Hambly, Gavin und Melville, Charles (Eds.): The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 7. From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, p. 815-860.
cf. Bayat, Kaveh (2009): The Pahlavi School of Historiography on the Pahlavi Era. In: Touraj, Atabaki (Eds.): Iran in the 20th Century: Historiography and Political Culture. I.B. Tauris.

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